In 1642, six months before Edgehill, the first battle of the English Civil War, Charles I made two attempts to enter the city of Hull to seize control of its armoury but was refused entry on both occasions by its governor Sir John Hotham. The king’s army was forced to retreat, probably making their way to Hessle, a royalist stronghold, while the disgruntled king declared Hotham a traitor.
By the 22nd of August, King Charles moved on to the City of Nottingham. Here he raised his royal standard thus marking the beginning of the English Civil War.
After spending the 13th and 14th of March 1484 in the Lincolnshire town of Stamford, Richard III moved onto Grantham where he spent two days before setting off to Nottingham.
Just five months previously, on the 19th October, Richard had taken possession of the Great Seal which had been delivered to him at noon in the Kings Chamber of the Angel Inn in the town.
The image below is a house on High Street St. Martin's, in Stamford in Lincolnshire, it was the one time home of Lady Frances Wingfield.
Francis is said to have entertained Oliver Cromwell at this house, where in 1643 she is said to have persuaded Cromwell, using their family connections, not to attack the Stamford - she asked that the gates to the town be closed.
Stamford at this time was on the whole loyal to the crown, but there were families who sympathised with the Parliamentarian cause, notably the Willoughby's at Grimsthorpe, however the family of Cecil played for both sides. The families fine house at Burghley was caught up in events of the Civil War in the summer of 1643 when it was taken for the Royalist party under Viscount Camden - a place to hide as the Parliamentarians made their way from Northampton. Camden's forces held Burghley for just one day, the 24th July 1643, but the arrival of an army under Oliver Cromwell forced a surrender by the afternoon of the following day.
Maybe it was while all the churches in Stamford were ringing their bells backwards to summon Royalist support that Francis was doing her bit to save the town from an attack?
Francis Wingfield was the daughter of Edward Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell of Oakham in Leicestershire and the great great granddaughter of Thomas Cromwell. Thomas, as you will know, was chief minister to King Henry VIII, his sister Catherine William was the great grandmother of Oliver.
You may be wondering why Oliver had the surname of Cromwell when the family's surname was William? Catherine's husband was Morgan ap William, but their family had abandoned the Welsh naming system of 'ap or son of' in favour of the English use of a surname and therefore their descendants took the name of Cromwell.
Towards the end of September in 1497 Perkin Warbeck had left the Somerset town of Taunton and had taken refuge in the sanctuary of Beaulieu Abbey in Hampshire where hid until the first week of October.
At the same time Henry VII's forces had left Oxfordshire town of Woodstock and were making their way to Taunton, it was while Henry was en route that he was informed Warbeck had been found. Warbeck gave himself up and was returned to Taunton. It was on this day that the Cornish supporters of Warbeck surrendered to the Tudor king.
Perkin Warbeck was taken from Taunton as a prisoner to Exeter where he was held at the home of the Cathedral's treasurer while Henry concentrated on bringing the rebellious West Country under his control.
In the images below you can see the north tower of Exeter Cathedral, it was in a house next to this that Warbeck was held. Also pictured here is Taunton Castle where Henry stayed while he was in the town.
Have you ever been to the City of Bath and fallen in love with it's architecture? I have, here are a few facts about the Royal Crescent.
In 1766 John Wood the Younger took a lease on the land from Sir Benet Garrard to build "good stone messuages in a workmanlike manner". Building began in 1767 and all the houses were occupied by 1778.
There are 30 houses in a crescent 538 feet across.
The facade is decorated with 114 giant order Ionic columns, i.e. the columns extend over two floors.
The columns are 2' 6" in diameter and 22' 6" high
From pavement to parapet the building is 47 feet high, or 5 feet higher than the Circus
The original roof was stone.
Today eight houses are each occupied by one "family" (though two of those make one unit!)
There were plans in 1945 to turn it into civic offices
It took 18 years to get the tourist buses and coaches banned from the Crescent
At its peak over 600 buses and coaches a week were logged using the Crescent between 8am and 8pm and the greatest number in one hour being 25.
In addition to normal traffic load, approximately 9,000 tons of coach traffic was using the Crescent per week before the ban.
During the war and up to 1956 the lawn was a "cabbage plot" with 72 allotments.
This week has been a sad one for those of us take a keen interest in the life of King Richard III because, as many of you will know already, part of the land on which Richard lost his life in 1485 will be covered with an ugly carpet of tarmac. Instead of looking across to the site of Henry VII advance we will now be able to see assorted cars going round and round and round just like mad dogs chasing their own tails and all in the name of progress.
However, it was on this day in 1452, a few miles west of Bosworth, that Richard was born at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire to Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville. He was the couples fourth son.
For more about Richard's life, you can read a post written two years ago by the author of the latest book on Richard III. Thanks again for that Matthew.
Photographs one was taken at Fotheringhay, the second at Richard III Visitor Centre in Leicester are both my images. The Fotheringhay Castle is Matthew's.
Matthew also has a new book our entitled Richard III: Loyalty Binds Me.
In Lincolnshire in the October of 1536, murmurings of discontent began at St. James Church in Louth. The people's grievance was Henry VIII's political, social and religious policies.
Talk soon turned to rebellion and the people of Louth quickly gained support in Horncastle, Market Rasen, and Caistor and the 'army' gained up to 40,000 men. While these men were moving from village to town adding to their numbers the King had sent word ordering them to disband and return to their own villages but Henry had no intention of letting any man slip back into the shadows as he had already sent Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk at the head of his own army.
The men of Lincolnshire had the support of local gentry and they marched on Lincoln arriving at the Cathedral demanding to be allowed to continue worshiping as Catholics and protection for their local churches but the threat of a trained armed force making its way from London they quickly took the offer to disband on condition of being pardoned.
By the middle of October, two of the main leaders were captured taken to Tyburn and hanged but these death of were not enough for Henry, he saw to it that most of the other local ringleaders were also executed. During the following twelve days, they were all hanged, drawn and quartered.
This brave uprising by the men of Lincolnshire inspired what was to become known as the Pilgrimage of Grace.
The last time Britain was invaded by a hostile force was in 1595 in Cornwall.
It was between the 23rd and the 25th of July that Spanish ships arrived at Mounts Bay, where there were a number of Cornish soldiers who were there to do battle with the invaders. Many of these men soon abandoned their posts, only Francis Godolphin, as Deputy Lord Lieutenant of Cornwall and commander of the local force, along with just a dozen of his soldiers stood in defense of Cornwall.
The Spanish soon made way to the tiny fishing village of Mousehole, its forces burnt the village and some surrounding hamlets, including the village of Paul causing its frightened inhabitants to flee in panic.
In 1333 Cornish born John Arundell had aided Edward III by supplying the king with troops at Battle of Halidon Hill on the 19th July of that year.
This battle was the result of Edward's support of Edward Balliol's claim to the throne of Scotland. Edward III's actions had broken the terms of the Treaty of Northampton, which he had agreed to three years earlier.
On this day in 1333 at Berwick on Tweed, for this service to the crown, John Arundell was rewarded with the granting of a charter which gave his manor of St Columb Major the right to hold a market every Thursday, also granted was the right to hold an annual fair on the ‘day and the morrow of the Feast of St Columba the Virgin.' This charter was issued at Berwick on Tweed by Edward III and signed John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, Edward III younger brother
The text of the charter reads:
Roll 7th, Edward the Third. For Sir John de Arendel, the king to the same, health.
Know ye, that we of our especial grace, have granted and, by this our charter, have confirmed to our beloved and faithful John de Arendel, that he and his heirs, for ever, may have a market every Thursday at his Manor of St Columb Magna, and a fair every year, on the eve and on the day and the morrow of St Columba the Virgin, to these being witness..........given by our hand at Berwick on Tweed, the 23rd day of July 1333 at the battle of Halidown Hill, the 19th day of July 1333.
By writ of our Privy Seal.
The growth of the Cornish market town of St Columb Major owes much to the Arundell family. Known as the Great Arundells they were a powerful and noteworthy family. You can read more about them here:
St Mary the Virgin Parish Church in Forthampton Gloucestershire is stated as being built in the 13th century, yet this rather wonderful arch predates the church by a century?
The porch in which the arch can be found was built in the late 1800's when the church was restored. I wonder was the arch part of the original church or brought in from elsewhere when the porch was constructed?
It is not in a perfect condition but you can see the square-headed keystone and one remaining beast head at the right end of the arch.
Whatever the date, it's rather lovely and maybe a little frightening don't you think?
History is so interesting isn't it? Do you love the story of King Alfred's unsuccessful afternoon in the kitchen or King Cnut unsuccessful attempt not to get his feet wet? Maybe you're interested in when the Normans landing on our shores or the stories of an era closer to our time?