to a second son and at present, the Duke of York is Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. There have been
eight creations of the title starting with Edmund Langley, fourth son of Edward III. There is Richard, the most famous Duke
of York, whose name is frequently used to recall the colours of the rainbow with the mnemonic ‘Richard Of York Gave Battle
In Vain’ and finally there is our present duke.
held it until 1827 when the grandson of George III died, it then passed to our present royal family and the title of Duke of
Albany was dropped.
He had ten thousand men;
He marched them up to the top of the hill,
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up,
And when they were down, they were down,
And when they were only half-way up,
They were neither up nor down.
So who is the Duke of York? And what was all the marching up and down about?
Richard Duke of York, father of Richard III who in 1460, waited for reinforcements perched high on a hill top at
James II in 1688 and his troops that marched to Salisbury Plain to do battle with William of Orange.
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany in 1793 with the Flanders Campaign near the town of Cassel in Northern France.
Just to confuse you there are two more candidates
Napoleon with this version of the rhyme:
The King of France with forty thousand men,
Came up a hill and so came downe againe
Richard Tarlton......an Elizabethan writer and court clown.